Organizational Development, Phases of Organizational Development, Benefits of Organizational Development, Human Resource Development, MS-22

Define Organizational Development. Describe various phases of OD programme being conducted in your organisation or the organisation you are familiar with. List out the benefits of OD programme's to the organization. Briefly describe the organization you are referring to.

Organizational development (OD) is a term most commonly used when referring to building capacities of an organization. Organization Development is the attempt to influence the members of an organization to expand their candidness with each other about their views of the organization and their experience in it, and to take greater responsibility for their own actions as organization members. The assumption behind OD is that when people pursue both of these objectives simultaneously, they are likely to discover new ways of working together that they experience as more effective for achieving their own and their shared (organizational) goals. And that when this does not happen, such activity helps them to understand why and to make meaningful choices about what to do in light of this understanding.

OD is about managing change in a systematic and planned way. The purpose of change for an organization is to evolve and to increase its positive impact on the lives of vulnerable people. The goal of changing is to become more effective, viable, autonomous and legitimate.

OD helps solve both specific and systemic problems like: unclear vision and strategies causing confusion among the ranks weak or slow implementation of strategies mistrust and recurrent conflict between divisions, levels, teams dissatisfied customers from weak Quality practices and culture inappropriate measures leading to misguided managers and employees too much change too fast (growing pains, restructuring, etc.)
high stress from the board room to the mail room slow decision making processes causing missed opportunities insufficient creativity or synergy in teams to meet challenges effectively management practices not in sync with the organization's stage of maturity low morale and productivity unskilled labor and wasteful processes

I am familiar with Zenith Computers, headquartered in Mumbai, India, is 25 years oldwith a turnover of Rs. 3 Billion. Zenith Computers has 1000 employees spread all over India in its 15 offices and manufacturing plant in Goa.Zenith's 40,000 sq ft, ISO 9001 + 14001 state-of-the-art manufacturing plant in Goa is one of the most comprehensive in the PC industry. Zenith has 800 Authorized Dealers and 350 Exclusive Retail
Showrooms called "Zenith PC World" across India. Phases of OD Programme At Zenith

1: Recognition: Recognition of a need for change can be brought about by many different events. An updated disaster assessment, a budget analysis, or periodic audits may reveal problems which must be dealt with. It is important that managers identify sources of feedback so that an information system can be developed and the need for change can be identified promptly.
2: Diagnosis of Problems: Before appropriate action can be taken, the problem is defined and all its aspects are examined. To diagnose the problem: identify the problem; determine what must be changed to resolve it; and determine what objectives are expected from the change (and how they can be measured).
3. Planning for Change: When the real problem of the organization is identified, OD consultant plans the various courses of action in the light of these problems. Since there are many techniques involved programme, attempts are made to transform diagnosis of the problems into proper action plan involving over all goals for OD, determination of the approach suitable for attaining goals, and sequence for implementing the approach.
4. Intervention in the System: After the techniques for OD programme and time sequence are determined, OD consultant attempts to change the organization and its people. It is a long affair and hence a gradual process. For example, most OD programmes begin with training the people in the light of the proposed organizational
change. Gradually intervention may be attempted at all the three level – individual, group and organization.
5. Evaluation and Feedback: OD work must include a high degree of accountability for results. Processes, results, successes and failures should be measured and documented. Progress of implementation as reflected in data associated with indicators should be monitored and adjustments should be made as needed. Careful monitoring and evaluation of the results of OD programmes provide feedback regarding what is going on. When any discrepancy appears between what is intended and what is happening, the change agent goes back almost to the first step, that is problem identification and diagnosis, though in this case, work involved may be slightly different. In the very beginning of problem identification and diagnosis, emphasis is more on data collection and its analysis; at this stage, emphasis may be more on analysis of OD programme techniques themselves. Moreover, feedback can be used as an energizing factor which will indicate what further action is necessary. Most common techniques for getting feedback are critique sessions, systematic appraisal of change efforts, and analysis of pre-training and post-training behavioural patterns based on actual operation.

Benefits of OD
adapt to the accelerating rate of change brought about by market forces embrace the demands of new technologies and processes make long-range comprehensive transformations vs. quick fixes initiate and manage change, particularly, complex change foster employee alignment and commitment to new ways of working expand everyone's ideas, beliefs, and behaviors to solve problems develop the organization's fitness for continuous innovation and renewal.