What is the role of Management Information System (MIS) in sustaining efficiency and effectiveness of an organization?

What is the role of Management Information System (MIS) in sustaining efficiency and effectiveness of an organization? Explain with the help of the prevailing MIS in an organization known to you. Briefly describe the organization along with its reporting relationships.
A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems.
An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of data in the form of information needed to carry out the management functions. In a way, it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers."
Applications of MIS ---------With computers being as ubiquitous as they are today, there's hardly any large business that does not rely extensively on their IT systems. However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable.
v  Strategy Support While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist management in understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.
v  MIS systems can be used to transform data into information useful for decision making. Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning, monitoring and implementation of strategy.
v  MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reports unmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. By studying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would have remained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.
v  MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations - hypothetical scenarios that answer a range of ‘what if’ questions regarding alterations in strategy. For instance, MIS systems can provide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price would have on a product. These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within an enterprise than would       be possible without MIS systems.
Data Processing
Not only do MIS systems allow for the collation of vast amounts of business data, but they also provide a valuable time saving benefit to the workforce. Where in the past business information had to be manually processed for filing and analysis it  can now be entered quickly and easily onto a computer by a data processor, allowing for faster decision making and quicker reflexes for the enterprise as a whole.
Management by Objectives
While MIS systems are extremely useful in generating statistical reports and data analysis
they  can  also  be  of  use  as  a  Management  by  Objectives (MBO)  tool.
MBO is a management process by which managers and subordinates agree upon a series
of objectives for the subordinate to attempt to achieve within a set time frame. Objectives
are set using the SMART ratio: that is, objectives should be Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic and Time-Specific.
The aim of these objectives is to provide a set of key performance indicators by which an
enterprise can judge the performance of an employee or project. The success of any MBO objective depends upon the continuous tracking of progress.
In tracking this performance it can be extremely useful to make use of an MIS system.
Since all SMART objectives are by definition measurable they can be tracked through the
generation   of   management   reports   to   be   analyzed   by   decision-makers.
Benefits of MIS
The field of MIS can deliver a great many benefits to enterprises in every industry.
Expert organisations such as the Institute of MIS along with peer reviewed journals such
as MIS Quarterly continue to find and report new ways to use MIS to achieve business
1. Core Competencies
Every market leading enterprise will have at least one core competency - that is, a function  they  perform  better  than  their  competition.  By  building  an  exceptional management information system into the enterprise it is possible to push out ahead of the competition. MIS systems provide the tools necessary to gain a better understanding of the market as well as a better understanding of the enterprise itself.

2. Enhance Supply Chain Management
Improved reporting of business processes leads inevitably to a more streamlined production process. With better information on the production process comes the ability to improve the management of the supply chain, including everything from the sourcing of materials to the manufacturing and distribution of the finished product.

3. Quick Reflexes
As a corollary to improved supply chain management comes an improved ability to react to changes in the market. Better MIS systems enable an enterprise to react more quickly to their environment, enabling them to push out ahead of the competition and produce a better service and a larger piece of the pie.

4. Significant cost benefits, time savings, productivity gains and process re- engineering
opportunities are associated with the use of data warehouse for information processing.
5. Data can easily be accessed and analysed without time consuming manipulation and processing.

6. Decisions can be made more quickly and with confidence that the data are both time-relevant and accurate.
7. Integrated information can be also kept in categories that are meaningful to profitable operation
Further information about MIS can be found at the Bentley College Journal of MIS and the US Treasury’s MIS handbook, and an example of an organisational MIS division can be found at the Department of Social Services for the state of Connecticut.
MIS in Banking Sector (AXIS BANK)
Axis Bank, previously called UTI Bank, was the first of the new private banks  to  have  begun  operations  in             1994,  after  the  Government  of  India allowed  new  private  banks  to  be  established. The  Bank  was  promoted  jointly by  the  Administrator  of  the  Specified  Undertaking  of  the  Unit  Trust  of  India (UTI-I),   Life   Insurance   Corporation   of   India (LIC),   General   Insurance Corporation   Ltd.,   National   Insurance   Company   Ltd.,   The   New   India Assurance   Company,   The   Oriental   Insurance   Corporation   and   United Insurance  Company  Ltd.  UTI-I  holds  a  special  position  in  the  Indian  capital markets  and  has  promoted  many  leading  financial  institutions  in  the  country.
For example, using MIS strategically can help a company to become a market innovator.
By providing a unique product or service to meet the needs of customers, a company can
raise the cost of market entry for potential competitors and thus gain a competitive
advantage.  Another strategic use of MIS involves forging electronic linkages to customers and suppliers. This can help companies to lock in business and increase switching costs. Finally, it is possible to use MIS to change the overall basis of competition in an industry. For example, in an industry characterized by price wars, a business with a new means of processing customer data may be able to create unique product features that change the basis of competition to differentiation.
Relevance of Data Warehousing and Data Mining for banks in India. Banking being an information intensive industry, building a Management Information System within a bank or an industry is a gigantic task. It is more so for the public sector banks which have a wide network of bank branches spread all over the country.
At   present,   banks   generate   MIS   reports   largely   from   periodic   paper reports/statements submitted by the branches and regional/zonal offices. Except for a few banks which have been using technology in a big way, MIS reports are available with a substantial time lag. Reports so  generated  have also  a  high  margin  of  error  due  to  data  entry  being  done  at  various levels and the likelihood of varying interpretations at different levels. Though  computerization  of  bank  branches  has  been  going  on  at  a  good  pace, MIS  requirements  have  not  been  fully  addressed  to. It is on account of the fact that most of the Total Branch Computerization (TBC)   software packages are transaction processing oriented. They have been designed primarily for   day-to-day operations at the branch level and day-end balancing of books
Need for building MIS
The need for building MIS at the corporate level has increased considerably during the last few years because of the following reasons:
v  Regulatory requirements indicated by the RBI for preparation of Off-site Monitoring Surveillance (OSMOS) Reports on a regular basis in electronic format
v  Regulatory requirement of filing of statutory returns such as the one under Section 42 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 for working out Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) obligations in electronic format
v  Asset Liability Management (ALM) guidelines for banks being implemented by the RBI w.e.f. April 1, 1999 with the stipulation that the banks should capture 100 percent of their business through the ALM system by April 1, 2000.
v  Need for timely submission of Balance Sheets and Profit & Loss Accounts
v  Focus on transaction costing and a need for relating the service charges levied on the customers to be based on cost of servicing
v  Need for Inter-Branch Reconciliation of Accounts within a definite time frame
v  Need to meet the stipulations made by the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) to computerise at least 70 percent of banking business by January 1, 2001.
v  Need to undertake risk management strategies and for this purpose build up appropriate sets of data and market intelligence reports

Application of data warehousing and data mining techniques
Implication of adopting such technology in a bank would be as under
1. All transactions captured at the branch level would get consolidated at a central location. Such a central location could be called the Data Warehouse of the concerned bank
2. For banks with large number of branches, it may not be desirable to consolidate the transaction details at one place only. It can be decentralised by locating the services on regional basis.
3. By way of data mining techniques, data available at various computer systems can be accessed and by a combination of techniques like classification, clustering, segmentation, association rules, sequencing, decision tree (described in detail at Annexure-15), various ALM reports such as Statement of Structural Liquidity, Statement of Interest Rate Sensitivity etc. or accounting reports like Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Account can be generated instantaneously for any desired period/date
RisKompass    : A software system for derivatives valuation  and   risk management, RisKompass  enables  clients  to  manage  derivative  trades  in  a further controlled  way  from  the  front  to  back  office.  Supporting  the  industry standard  FpML (Financial   Product   Markup   Language)   protocol,   it   can manage  valuation  and  risk  management  of  a  broad range  of  derivatives instruments. The system will handle derivatives such as interest rates and foreign exchange for Bank.
1. The implementation will provide the bank with an automated system that reduces manual effort to streamline its operations.
2. The benefit envisaged by the bank is that everybody being on the same system, it can be accessed by anyone on the different locations of the bank.
3. The users at the bank would include traders, dealers and risk managers.
4. The solution will result in smoother deal processing, with verifying and online risk monitoring mechanism.
5. It will streamline all operations and the risk mechanism can be monitored centrally
Electronic Clearing Service (ECS Credit)
·Electronic Clearing Service (ECS Credit)
ECS Credit is an electronic clearing system that facilitates paperless transaction through an offline system. Bank facilitates ECS Credit at all ECS designated locations. We accept the   electronic  file and   arrange  abstention   of  settlement   date (date   of  credit   to   beneficiary account)  from  RBI/SBI/Local  Clearing  House  as  the  case  may  be.  The funds  gets  debited  from  a  centralized  account  and  credit  is  accorded  to the   respective   beneficiaries   as   per   settlement   cycle.   A   detailed   MIS about the transactions is provided to the customer.

To establish an Electronic Funds Transfer System to facilitate an efficient, secure, economical,   reliable and expeditious system of funds transfer and clearing in the banking   sector   throughout India.   The customer  willing  to  avail  the  NEFT  facility offered  by  us  shall  submit an "NEFT Application  Form"  authorising   the   sending   bank   to debit the sender's  account  and  transfer funds to the beneficiary specified in the NEFT Application Form. The Beneficiary's   account    will   be credited   on the   same   day   by crediting   the   specified   account   of  the beneficiary or  otherwise placing funds at the disposal of the beneficiary.
Centralised Service Desk
A   dedicated   service   desk   has   been   started   at   our   Centralised Collection and Payment HUB (CCPH) to ensure that your queries are resolved quickly and efficiently.  The Customers   can   contact   CCPH regarding any query about the MIS or the process flow.
· Web CMS Web CMS provides you with all the information at a click. Detailed MIS Like location wise collection and return, product-wise pooling, pooling   in   pipeline (due   credit   report) etc. can be viewed and downloaded from web interface through internet
Comprehensive  MIS  We  provide  comprehensive  MIS  reports  like  daily  report, transaction report  future  credits  reports  and  cheque  returned  unpaid  report.  On the payments  side  we  provide  daily  paid -  unpaid  status  for  the  demand drafts, cheques or warrants issued by your Organisation.

Mobile Alert Service
The CMS clients availing our collection products now have the facility to subscribe to   Mobile Alert Service for receiving alerts on registered mobile phone numbers instantly after the funds   are pooled. To avail this facility, please visit nearest CMS designated branch or log on to our Web CMS to download the form online and send it to our branch where your account is maintained.